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Where are adult stem cells found, and what do they normally do?

Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues, including brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium, and testis. They are thought to reside in a specific area of each tissue (called a “stem cell niche”). In many tissues, current evidence suggests that some types of stem cells are pericytes, cells that compose the outermost layer of small blood vessels. Stem Cells may remain quiescent (non-dividing) for long periods of time until they are activated by normal need for more cells to maintain tissues, or by disease or tissue Injury.

What are stem cells, and why are they important?

Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics.

First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-speciöc cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions. Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic “somatic” or “adult” stem cells.

Infuence of Ceramide III on the Structure of a Phospholipd Lamellar Liquid Crystalline Phase Hydrated in Glycerin: Structural and Thermal Behaviors

This paper aims to investigate the lyotropic behaviors of DSPC and CER3 when they are swollen by GLY as a solvent. The analyses were carried out on DSC, XRDs, PM, and Cryo-SEM. CER3 which has its high crystallinity and structural similarity with DSPC was well arranged up to 7.0 wt% in comparison to 20 wt% DSPC without any separation, but it was separated from the liquid crystalline (LC) phase to form another crystalline phase with the expression of its characteristic peak in XRDs and eutectic thermal behavior in DSC. Introducing CER3, two types of patterns were shown in XRD spectra; one is SPP expressed in a normal LC and another is LPP expressed in human skin SC. Therefore, it was conörmed that the incorporation of CER3 makes LC structure more similar to human skin. In Cryo-SEM study, it was shown that CER3 makes LC structure thicker and denser.